29 dez russian civil war casualties
The loss of Ukraine deprived red Russia of its granary. (eds. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the âWhitesâ and the âReds.â The Reds were â¦ The second was that the memory of this conflict, although instrumentalized by the Bolsheviks for a short time, could not be that of mass deaths: epidemics, civil war, famine, the Great Terror and the Second World War diluted what in France and in Great Britain appeared as the massacre of massacres, the sacrifice of sacrifices. The civil war saw pillage and requisitioning develop, especially as uncontrolled floods of migrants hindered the redistribution of agricultural products between regions that over-produced and regions that consumed. See RGVIA, f. 16196, op. With about 5.5 million out of 16 million soldiers killed and wounded, the Russian Empire appears to have suffered less than France and Germany. It was the result of the German defeat in World War I, Polish nationalism, and Bolshevik expansionism in the wake of the Russian Civil War. In response, army attacks and retaliation on the part of the colonizers caused more than 1,000 deaths among the native population. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. The wounded, the disabled, the widows and orphans were taken care of less by a state administration going bankrupt than by philanthropic societies and the Zemgor. The Russians suffered from far less favourable conditions than the French or the British. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). It is, however, possible, as we shall see, to establish a rough estimate. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. This figure does not take into account the wounded who were not evacuated, which would bring the total to 3,813,827. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. The number of soldiers missing in action and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the other warring nations. Support for the war and the Czar, Nicholas II, was dwindling and the country was on the brink of revolution. It is therefore not surprising that among the nations derived from the splitting up of the Romanov empire, plenty of problems of collective and individual memorials, public and private, linked by the Great War, arose, and which, taken all together, explain its absence from national histories. RGIA, f. 806, op. Forced to react to the civil war, Soviet Russia turned into the most ambitious welfare state of the immediate post-war years. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. Preobraženskij, S.A.: «О pomošči nervno-psihičeskim invalidam» report to the Panrussian congress of psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, 3 January 1924, GARF, f. 4347 (Vserokompom), op. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. Finally, the 1918 civil war intensified the terrible human cost of the conflict. Not only was the wartime carnage on the battlefields great, but many civilians died as well. A vindictive majority thus imposed a return to the collective organisation of agriculture and actions against the privileged: noble landowners or ecclesiastics and “separator” peasants enriched by the commercialisation of their produce. The results of the civil war were momentous. The uncertain nature of these calculations, the delayed national mourning and private mourning hampered by distance and false news made these losses unbearable for the population. The food crisis reached its peak in the latter regions during 1917, 1918 and 1919, then hit the agricultural provinces, including the towns, in 1920 and above all in 1921. The repression extinguished the revolt within a month in Turkestan, but it continued among the neighbouring Kazakh nomads. But that does not take into account some other facts: 500,000 soldiers missing, 3 million prisoners of war, 1.1 million disabled, 6 million refugees and tens of thousands of civilian victims. If the collapse of political authority was the main factor in the revival of the peasant commune (mir) during 1917, the death of hundreds of thousands of peasants in their prime, heads of smallholdings or older sons who were to become such, also played a role. It is estimated that the Soviet Unionlost 27 million military and civilians in World War II. With the end of the war, the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. The litany of deaths announced in the village contributed to the outburst of violence which had been smouldering since the first revolution of 1905: assassinations and fires laid waste to the countryside behind the lines just as efficiently as did an army on the march on the frontlines.  Nearly 6 million refugees, for the most part non-Russian, surged into Russia at the same time, suffering all the ups and downs resulting from a chaotic expedition and total destitution. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. Several obstacles prevented the reconstruction of a memorial of the Great War immediately after the conflict. The total figures give the wrong impression of the social significance of the losses. Finally, the Jews became scapegoats in explanations for the series of defeats suffered by the Russian army on the western limits of the empire. Finally, the civil war which followed the Great War made the demographic toll and political significance of these losses far heavier. The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I. 161, 163. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized.  Out of 103,194 wounded and subsequently treated in the hospitals of Petrograd, only 24 percent were sent back directly to the front. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I, Cambridge, MA 2003. As we will see, even if he underestimated total casualties by half, he showed that 1915 and 1916, the years of the war of attrition, were more deadly than 1914, when the war was raging. At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. 1, d. 853, l. 6. The violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River and Gettysburg shocked everyone in the country, both North and South. Read more about this topic: Russian Civil War, Aftermath, Allied Intervention in The Russian Civil War. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. Confederate Civil War Casualties. To conclude, we will try to grasp the social and cultural impact the losses had on Russia during three distinct stages of its history: the empire, revolutions, and the Soviet regime. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. In effect, there were, respectively, 23,000 and 22,000 deaths per month, as against 8,000 in the first five months of the war. The houses are crumbling. By 1922, there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly 10 years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I, Cambridge 2000. In fact, more than half the Soviet population was affected. There did exist in Soviet Russia a memory not only private, but intimate, did of the losses suffered during the Great War. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar in Russian society, and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. At the turn of 1920, Russia entered its seventh year of war. Between 2.5 and 3 million soldiers of the Russian Empire shared the experience of captivity during the First World War, especially in Germany. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as â¦ The statistics published by healthcare organisations related both to space (care on the spot, immediately behind the lines or evacuation) and time (return to combat, convalescence, discharge). We can, however, attempt to extrapolate some partial data to determine for example the hotly debated total of war wounded. Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by â¦ Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. Ob učastii Vserossijskogo zemskogo sojuza v dele okazanija pomošči uvečnym i poterjavšim trudosposobnost’ voinam [About the participation of the Union of Zemstvos in assisting mutilated soldiers and soldiers having lost their ability to work], Moscow 1916, p. 62. Le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris 2010, pp. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Leninâs Bolsheviks.These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. If tuberculosis was considered a disability, the common pathologies that were due to extreme fatigue or poor food struggled to be recognised as such in Russia during the war. Russian Revolution - Causes, Timeline & Definition - HISTORY During the war, debates within psychiatry questioned the terminology and the role of the war in causing psychiatric illnesses. Combat Deaths: Over 110,000 Other Deaths*: Over 250,000. Sazonov, L.I. Epidemics spread and death strikesâindustry is ruined.". In August 1916, detachments of Kazakh horsemen swept down on the Russians around Lake Issyk-Kul, killed the men, carried off 1,500 women and children as hostages and burned everything in their path. These 16 million soldiers thus represented almost the total number of available men, contrary to the widespread cliché of “the immense Russian reservoir”. The imperial army was traditionally a hotbed of antisemitism. Did the events of the war reveal illnesses which were already present, or did they produce specific pathologies? In Ukraine during the civil war, they were the target of the riots against "speculators"; approximately 150,000 men, women and children fell victim to the series of pogroms from 1918 to 1920.. However, the exact figure has been disputed, with the Soviets estimating the number to be about 20 million (approximately 13.7% of the population at the time). The collective mourning for those lost, fundamental for maintaining the unity of the population, largely failed to take shape in Russia. Yet many captured soldiers developed neurosis or became chronically ill: 650,000 were counted in Germany alone. 315-325. The Russian Civil War - When did it end? With the Great Retreat in the summer of 1915, whole countries (Poland, Lithuania) found themselves intensely exploited by the German army. On 24 December 1916, Nikolai V. Ruzski (1854-1918) proposed 11 May, the feast of SS Cyril and Methodius, but the church authorities preferred the day of the Holy Spirit. The railways barely crawl.  Austria and Hungary, but also in Turkey, Romania and in occupied France. The army updated its lists as well as it could, and sometimes communicated its results. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. Irish civilians were all British citizens during the conflict. This text The third inventory is organised according to type. Friedlander, Kim: «Neskol’ko aspektov shellshock’a v Rossii, 1914-1916» [Some aspects of the shell shock in Russia, 1914-1916], Rossija i Pervaja mirovaja vojna, Saint Petersburg 1999, pp. Gran, M.M.  The poor hygiene and meagre food supplies, the hostility of the local populations as well as fatal accidents made an exact number of victims difficult to establish – a foretaste of the civil war to come.  Ruzski made his request just before the February Revolution occurred. Military, civilian, national and local institutions established these lists according to differing aims and methods. Poteri vooruženyh sil, pp. These Ã©migrÃ©s included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia.  In other nations, such memorials were focussed on collective grief. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. World War II was a war that spanned from 1939 to 1945. Refugees in Russia During World War I, Bloomington 1999. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. Moreover, the plurality of confessions was too briefly taken into account by the principal decision-makers, all of whom belonged to the orthodox majority. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Russo-Polish War (1919â20), military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland.  The unrest first grew in the oasis zone before reaching the towns in July. In the 1960s, the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis (1906-1981) re-assessed the number of military deaths at 908,000, higher than the estimations that until then had been somewhere between 511,068 and 775,369 dead or killed. Lastly, the most unique factor from the perspective of Russian military losses is the astounding number of those “unaccounted for”. This was a result of the spatial and temporal nature of the occupation of the western fringes of the empire. Among the others, 27.2 percent were given leave to recover, 25.2 percent were declared unfit, 13.4 percent remained after the war in specialised establishments to complete their recovery and 10.2 percent were transferred to other provinces or institutions. Firstly, the question of figures has sparked a debate which, even with a close study of the available sources, cannot be settled. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years â between 1918 and 1921. Le retour des invalides russes de la Grande Guerre, 1914-1929», Cahiers du monde russe, 51/1 (January-March 2010), pp. In 1916, the specialists of Zemstvo considered that 22.2 percent of the wounded and sick had permanently lost their capacity to work, 1.3 percent of whom were no longer autonomous. 100-106. Brower, Daniel: Turkestan and the Fate of Russian Empire, London & New York 2003, pp. World War II losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000 both civilian and military, although exact figures are disputed. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over.They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. : GIZ, 1923, pp. The gulf between the Chief of Staff and high-ranking officers became larger, making the general mutiny in 1917 and the organisation of the Red Army in 1918-1920 possible.  This figure is by nature very variable. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. : «Opyt izučenija sanitarnyh poseldstvij vojny 1914-1917 v Rossii», Trudy komissii, pp. October 25, 1922, when the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic took Vladivostok, the almost 5-year Civil War in Russia ended. See also World War I casualties da. About 15 percent of all the soldiers mobilised thus found themselves expatriated, brutally separated from their families and their comrades, shunted from one camp to another in cattle wagons or on foot. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the preâWorld War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. Of the three points of their effective sloganââPeace, land, and breadââthe first proved to be the most difficult to realize.  After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable to provide final figures. Sumpf, Alexandre: War Losses (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. Rossijskie voennoplennye Pervoj mirovoj vojny v Germanii (1914-1922 [Another war experience. Continually accused of helping the enemy, the Jews found themselves up against all sorts of discrimination and were even taken as hostages. La Grande Guerre dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Europe, Paris 2008. Letters of 27 November and 24 December 1916. The Polish victory resulted in the establishment of the Russo-Polish border that existed until 1939. As elsewhere, the great majority of soldiers killed, wounded, missing or captured came from the infantry, where the peasant class, which at the time represented 80 percent of the population of the empire, was predominant. Neither includes the subsequent Russian Civil War) 1914â1918 Allied â¦ The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their failure to break with the ugly past of the oppressive Tsarist rÃ©gime. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2018-07-05. ): Vers la guerre totale.  Communication with families and public communication had to be viewed with skepticism: the lists published in the local and national press did not always correspond to the calculations made by military or health-service statisticians. The tendency of the former to minimize losses, and of the latter to exaggerate the quality of treatment for the sick and wounded by particular institutions was accentuated by the distortion owing to temporal and geographical distance. This database includes lists and narrative reports reporting casualties sustained by Confederate Army units during the war. There was a project to create a memorial day for the soldiers, like that of 2 November in France, but this never eventuated. Peasants suffered most of the ordeals of the war. In September 1914, an army commander evicted the entire Jewish population in the Polish fortress of Pulawy, only allowing them twenty-four hours to leave. : Istorija voennyh poter’ [History of war losses], Saint Petersburg 1994, pp. Ždanov, N.M.: Russkie voennoplennye v mirovoj vojne 1914-1918 [Russian prisoners of war during the world war, 1914-1920)], Moscow 1920, p. 77. Secondly, one must assess the types of losses and the causes of the differentials between categories of the population. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). : «Poteri russkoj armii v vojnu 1914-1918» [The losses of the army during the 1914-1918 war], Trudy komissii po obsledovaniju sanitarnyh posledstvij vojny 1914-1920 gg. The towns are full of refuse. It also shocked international observers. Understand the conflict in Ukraine since it erupted in 2014 and track the latest developments around Russian and U.S. involvement on the Global Conflict Tracker from the Center for Preventive Action. The devastation wrought by the first months of the war shook up the staffing of the units: the professional officers, aristocrats or not, were replaced by a stratum of clerks and educated peasants, closer to the troops as they had come from their ranks. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia), of riflemen (the Baltic lands) or labourers (Turkestan). Thus, the assessment of military losses in the Russian empire depended on how these figures were used at the time or after the war. Sumpf, Alexandre: «Une société amputée. The units had to continually assess and account for losses and hors-de-combat, which justified the demand for more supplies of men. Russian Civil War (1918â20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. 2-5. Great for home study or â¦ When considering the mortality rate during the Great War, we must distinguish between the population under Russian administration and that trapped behind enemy lines. 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